1944) and Sanjay (b. In one of the early interviews she gave as prime minister, Gandhi had ruminated: "I suppose you could call me a socialist, but you have understand what we mean by that term ... we used the word [socialism] because it came closest to what we wanted to do here – which is to eradicate poverty.  Yet despite this, many women saw Gandhi as a symbol for feminism and an image of women's power. She was said to be hailed as Goddess Durga by opposition leader Atal Bihari Vajpayee at the time. The Gandhi faction, called Congress (R), lost its majority in the parliament but remained in power with the support of regional parties such as DMK. Elected Congress president. Indira Gandhi was born on November 19, 1917, in Allahabad, India. Bhutto asked the nation to unite and slogans such as "hum ghaas aur pattay kha lay gay magar nuclear power ban k rhe gay" ("We will eat grass or leaves or even go hungry, but we will get nuclear power") were employed.  In 1981, Gandhi met President Ronald Reagan for the first time at the North–South Summit held to discuss global poverty. The Congress Party won a reduced majority in the Lok Sabha after these elections owing to widespread disenchantment over the rising prices of commodities, unemployment, economic stagnation and a food crisis. Sanjay Gandhi died in plane crash.   Nevertheless, Iran had resisted Pakistani pressure to activate the Baghdad Pact and draw the Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO) into the conflict.  In 1956, she wrote in a letter: "It is because of this that I am taking a much more active part in politics. Indira Gandhi’s Political career started quite early in her life serving her father on officially as his personal assistant when he was the first Prime Minister of India in the 1950’s.  Because she was a woman, other political leaders in India saw Gandhi as weak and hoped to use her as a puppet once elected: Congress President Kamaraj orchestrated Mrs. Gandhi's selection as prime minister because he perceived her to be weak enough that he and the other regional party bosses could control her, and yet strong enough to beat Desai [her political opponent] in a party election because of the high regard for her father ... a woman would be an ideal tool for the Syndicate. Designed to covers a wide range of areas, including to increased focus on developing national security, social welfare, economic and social affair, money and taxes. , In the early 1980s under Gandhi, India attempted to reassert its prominent role in the Non-Aligned Movement by focusing on the relationship between disarmament and economic development. Gandhi's authorisation of the detonation of a nuclear device at Pokhran in 1974 was viewed by Pakistani leader Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as an attempt to intimidate Pakistan into accepting India's hegemony in the subcontinent. The Janata coalition was only united by its hatred of Gandhi (or "that woman" as some called her). Under this scheme, the beneficiary is given monthly financial help for better and easier life.  The 1974 India-Iranian agreement led to Iran supplying nearly 75 percent of India's crude oil demands. Both Satwant and Kehar were sentenced to death and hanged in Delhi's Tihar Jail.  At Oxford, she did well in history, political science and economics, but her grades in Latin—a compulsory subject—remained poor. , The Congress party was a "broad church" during the independence movement; however, it started turning into a family firm controlled by Indira Gandhi's family during the emergency. In that capacity, she was instrumental in getting the Communist led Kerala State Government dismissed in 1959. The Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme started by Central Government (Ministry of Rural Development) for Disable persons of the country. https://exploringyourmind.com/indira-gandhi-the-iron-lady-of-india  While the agreement was considered a victory for the Indian government and ended large-scale conflicts, there have since been spurts of violence by rebel holdouts and ethnic conflict amongst the tribes.  After nationalisation, the oil majors such as the Indian Oil Corporation (IOC), the Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (HPCL) and the Bharat Petroleum Corporation (BPCL) had to keep a minimum stock level of oil, to be supplied to the military when needed. , There is considerable debate whether Gandhi was a socialist on principle or out of political expediency. The other leaders of the Janata Party were Charan Singh, Raj Narain, George Fernandes and Atal Bihari Vajpayee.. Web. The Indira Gandhi Memorial Trust | South Asian History and Culture 1.4 (2010): 480–493. , India maintained close ties with neighbouring Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan) following the Liberation War. Before the 1980 elections Gandhi approached the then Shahi Imam of Jama Masjid, Syed Abdullah Bukhari and entered into an agreement with him on the basis of 10-point programme to secure the support of the Muslim votes.  In 1974, India successfully conducted an underground nuclear test, unofficially code named "Smiling Buddha", near the desert village of Pokhran in Rajasthan. Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research - EMLE Program Mr. Palanichamy Babu Gen. A.K. Gandhi presided over three Five-Year Plans as prime minister, two of which succeeded in meeting their targeted growth. This had been her first economic policy formulation, six months after coming to office. She won a by-election in the Chikmagalur Constituency and took a seat in the Lok Sabha in November 1978  after the Janata Party's attempts to have Kannada matinee idol Rajkumar run against her failed when he refused to contest the election saying he wanted to remain apolitical. of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, AIIMS, N. Delhi. I know. It is a maternity benefit rechristened from erstwhile Indira Gandhi Matritva Sahyog Yojana (IGMSY). 30. The slogan was developed in response to the combined opposition alliance's use of the two word manifesto—"Indira Hatao" (Remove Indira).  The judge, however, rejected the more serious charges of bribery, laid against her in the case.. Indira Gandhi and the nuclear bomb: She never gave the green signal Indira of the 1980s was careful not to present a hawkish persona to world leaders. Her government targeted an average growth rate of 5.2% over the period of the plan. In 1974, India ceded the tiny islet of Katchatheevu to Sri Lanka to save Bandaranaike's socialist government from a political disaster.  After becoming prime minister, Gandhi expressed her intention of nationalising the banks to alleviate poverty in a paper titled, "Stray thoughts on Bank Nationalisation".  The economy managed to recover in 1966 and ended up growing at 4.1% over 1966–1969. Although judicial challenges and non-Congress governments tried to water down the amendment, the amendment still stands. Indira Nehru Gandhi vs. Shri Raj Narain and Anr. Born on November 19, 1917, in Allahabad, India, Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi was the sole child of Kamala and Jawaharlal Nehru. The Congress Party split during the election campaign of 1977: veteran Gandhi supporters like Jagjivan Ram, Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna and Nandini Satpathy were compelled to part ways and form a new political entity, the CFD (Congress for Democracy), due primarily to intra-party politicking and the circumstances created by Sanjay Gandhi. Indira Gandhi and the nuclear bomb: She never gave the green signal Indira of the 1980s was careful not to present a hawkish persona to world leaders. The latter grew to become India's largest trading partner and its biggest arms supplier for much of Gandhi's premiership. Before her election as prime minister, she became active in the organisational wing of the Congress party, working in part in the Women's Department. Under this scheme, the beneficiary is given monthly financial help for better and easier life. The Indira Gandhi National Open University is a well-established distance learning institute that offers degrees to students in various fields. For their part, the previously voiceless poor would at last gain both political worth and political weight. Boston: Shankar, A. Being influenced and inspired by her parents, Indira Gandhi rose to power in India and eventually became prime minister.  She was the first and, to date, the only female Prime Minister of India.Indira Gandhi was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India. Opposition to her in the 1973–75 period, after the Gandhi wave had receded, was strongest in the states of Bihar and Gujarat. ", Gandhi's biggest achievement following the 1971 election came in December 1971 with India's decisive victory over Pakistan in the Indo-Pakistani War that occurred in the last two weeks of the Bangladesh Liberation War, which led to the formation of independent Bangladesh. New York: Pantheon, 1992. 64.  Although in time Gandhi came to be viewed as the scourge of the right-wing and reactionary political elements of India, leftist opposition to her policies emerged.  The men dropped their weapons and surrendered. President of the Indian National Congress, List of state visits made by Indira Gandhi, authorisation of the detonation of a nuclear device, suffered persecution and eventually expulsion, Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Forty-second Amendment of the Constitution of India, Indira Gandhi Award for National Integration, List of elected and appointed female heads of state and government, "Rahul first in three generations with a world university degree", "19th November 2017: 100 years of Indira Gandhi.  The paper received overwhelming public support. This established the official government policy of bilingualism in India and satisfied the non-Hindi speaking Indian states. Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) has embarked on its journey since the year 1985. Gandhi gave verbal authorisation for this test, and preparations were made in the Indian Army's Pokhran Test Range. Program of IGNOU Read on to find out more about MBA programmes offered by IGNOU.  Jayaprakash Narayan, who became famous for leading the opposition to Gandhi in the 1970s, solidly praised her nationalisation of banks. The international airport at New Delhi is named Indira Gandhi International Airport in her honour.  The rise of these newly empowered social classes challenged the political establishment of the Hindi Belt in the years to come. , The economic period of 1967–75 became significant for its major wave of nationalisation amidst increased regulation of the private sector. Her Cabinet and government then recommended that President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed declare a state of emergency because of the disorder and lawlessness following the Allahabad High Court decision. Sunanda K. Datta-Ray; "Indira Gandhi: Enigma, Mother-Goddess and Terror Incernate". Candidates who want to take Post degree, degree, diploma, and certificate courses can be applied before the 4th week of July 2021. Nevertheless, Gandhi's close relations with reunified Vietnam and her decision to recognize the Vietnam-installed Government of Cambodia in 1980 meant that India and ASEAN were unable to develop a viable partnership. Several states sought a larger measure of independence from the central government, and Sikh separatists in Punjab state used violence to assert their demands for an autonomous state. Since Gandhi had lost her seat in the election, the defeated Congress party appointed Yashwantrao Chavan as their parliamentary party leader. The alliance was made up of Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Congress (O), The Socialist parties, and Charan Singh's Bharatiya Kranti Dal representing northern peasants and farmers.  Beant Singh shot her three times using his side-arm; Satwant Singh fired 30 rounds. , Although the Maruti Udyog company was first established by Gandhi's son, Sanjay, it was under Indira that the then nationalized company came to prominence. The Janata alliance, under the leadership of Morarji Desai, came to power after the State of Emergency was lifted. Indira Gandhi was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first prime minister of India. " Once appointed president in 1959, she "travelled relentlessly, visiting remote parts of the country that had never before received a VIP ... she talked to women, asked about child health and welfare, inquired after the crafts of the region" Gandhi's actions throughout her ascent to power clearly reflect a desire to mobilise women. , Gandhi inherited a tattered economy in her second term; harvest failures and a second oil shock in the late 1970s had caused inflation to rise again. Initially, her younger son Sanjay had been her chosen heir, but after his death in a flying accident in June 1980, Gandhi persuaded her reluctant elder son Rajiv to quit his job as a pilot and enter politics in February 1981. She was one of the first people I read about with enthusiasm. Indira Nehru Gandhi was born on November 19, 1917 and would be the only child of Jawaharlal and Kamala Nehru.  The Sixth Plan went on to become the most successful of the Five-Year Plans yet; showing an average growth rate of 5.7% over 1980–85. Since Singh refused to drop them, Congress withdrew its support and President Reddy dissolved Parliament in August 1979. IGNOU offers various courses in diplomas, undergraduate, postgraduate diplomas and postgraduate through distance learning streams for its aspirants.. On this page you can find information on Master of Education (M.Ed.)  In 2011, the Government of Bangladesh conferred its highest state award posthumously on Gandhi for her "outstanding contribution" to the country's independence. She noted that her main problem in office was how to balance her political duties with tending to her children, and "stressed that motherhood was the most important part of her life.  The defeat of Pakistan in 1971 and the secession of East Pakistan as pro-India Bangladesh led to the collapse of the Mizo separatist movement. , Gandhi moved to restore order by ordering the arrest of most of the opposition participating in the unrest. In Bihar, Jayaprakash Narayan, the veteran leader came out of retirement to lead the protest movement there. Programs 2020-21. In the 1950s, Indira, now Mrs. Indira Gandhi after her marriage, served her father unofficially as a personal assistant during his tenure as the first prime minister of India. , After several futile negotiations, in June 1984, Gandhi ordered the Indian army to enter the Golden Temple to remove Bhindranwale and his supporters from the complex. She served as prime minister from January 1966 to March 1977 and again from January 1980 until her assassination in October 1984, making her the second longest-serving Indian prime minister after her father.. The scheme is a conditional cash transfer scheme for pregnant and lactating women. Gandhi indicated that she would make no major concessions on Kashmir. " The rationale behind the overall plan was Gandhi's Ten-Point Programme of 1967. The main reason was the perceived bias of the United States and China, rivals of the USSR, towards Pakistan. , Foreign and domestic policy successes in the 1970s enabled Gandhi to rebuild India's image in the eyes of African states. Congress party veteran K. Kamaraj was instrumental in Gandhi achieving victory. At the same time, Indo-US relations were strained because of Gandhi's criticism of the American bombing campaign in Vietnam. The rebellion was suppressed with the Indian Air Force carrying out airstrikes in Aizawl; this remains the only instance of India carrying out an airstrike in its own territory. , Indira Gandhi was born Indira Nehru into a Kashmiri Pandit family on 19 November 1917 in Allahabad. , Gandhi considered the north-eastern region important, because of its strategic situation. The situation was normalised in the years following the war after Abdullah agreed to an accord with Gandhi, by giving up the demand for a plebiscite in return for a special autonomous status for Kashmir. Some of these were due to high inflation which in turn was caused by wartime expenses, drought in some parts of the country and, more importantly, the 1973 oil crisis. At that time, it used to award just one pilot program – i.e. Singh was appointed prime minister, by President Reddy, after Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi promised Singh that Congress would support his government from outside on certain conditions. The Hindi-speaking southern half of Punjab became a separate state, Haryana, while the Pahari speaking hilly areas in the northeast were joined to Himachal Pradesh.  There was an increase in Indian economic and military co-operation with Iran during the 1970s. Applicants may apply again when IGIDR advertises after it resumes in-campus activities fully.  The government was also successful in procuring houses for landless labourers; According to Francine Frankel, three-fourths of the targeted four million houses was achieved in 1975 alone. Even though men surrounded Gandhi during her upbringing, she still had a female role model as a child. Case Study: Smt.  In 1980, as a tribute to her son's dream of launching an indigenously manufactured car, Gandhi nationalized Sanjay's debt ridden company, Maruti Udyog, for Rs. The easy trade deals also applied to non-military goods. ", Gandhi formed her government with Morarji Desai as deputy Prime Minister and finance minister.  Her egalitarian upbringing with her cousins helped contribute to her sense of natural equality.  Nepal and Bhutan remained aligned with India, while in 1975, after years of building up support, Gandhi incorporated Sikkim into India, after a referendum in which a majority of Sikkimese voted to join India.  The conditions included dropping all charges against Gandhi and Sanjay.  Many royals tried to protest the abolition of the privy purse, primarily through campaigns to contest seats in elections.  The government was able to exceed the targeted growth figure with an annual growth rate of 5.0–5.2% over the five-year period of the plan (1974–79).  Although Iran had earlier characterized the Indo-Pakistani war in 1965 as Indian aggression, the Shah had launched an effort at rapprochement with India in 1969 as part of his effort to secure support for a larger Iranian role in the Persian Gulf.  Related to this point were a set of policies which were meant to regulate the private sector. Gandhi declared the people of Indian origin settled in Africa as "Ambassadors of India".  Efforts to rope in the Asian community to join Indian diplomacy, however, came to naught, in part because of the unwillingness of Indians to remain in politically insecure surroundings, and because of the exodus of African Indians to Britain with the passing of the Commonwealth Immigrants Act in 1968. Site by Digital Law & Kenneth Saatchi & Saatchi, Site by Digital Law & Kenneth Saatchi & Saatchi. The public-private partnership Delhi International Airport Limited (DIAL) completed a massive, fast-track modernization program to expand airport capacity, improve operational …  Gandhi came out of the language conflicts with the strong support of the south Indian populace. I will not give the examples of Operation blue Star and Emergency since they are very common and there have been already explained in a lot of answers.  After being arrested over this matter, Bhindranwale disassociated himself from the Congress Party and joined Akali Dal.  Relations only began to improve following Gandhi's endorsement of the ZOPFAN declaration and the disintegration of the SEATO alliance in the aftermath of Pakistani and American defeats in the region.  In July 1982, he led the campaign for the implementation of the Anandpur Resolution, which demanded greater autonomy for the Sikh-majority state. "Indira Gandhi." Her lieutenant, P. V. Narasimha Rao, later became prime minister and approved full diplomatic ties with Israel in 1992. Her speech at the UN Conference at Stockholm on June 14, 1972 was a decisive milestone in the global discourse on the environment. " Critics have focused on the contradictions in the evolution of her stance towards communism. She saw her own success as a woman, and also noted that: "Given the opportunity to develop, capable Indian women have come to the top at once. Suzuki of Japan was selected as the partner.  The remaining private sector industries were placed under strict regulatory control. However, they received a final setback when many of them were defeated by huge margins.  It was the economic rationale of the emergency, a political act which has often been justified on economic grounds. The scheme is a conditional cash transfer scheme for pregnant and lactating women. , One of her legacies is supposed to be the systematic corruption of all parts of India's government from the executive to the judiciary due to her sense of insecurity. The transition to statehood for these territories was successfully overseen by her administration.  The policies of the Congress under Gandhi, before the 1971 elections, also included proposals for the abolition of the Privy Purse to former rulers of the princely states and the 1969 nationalization of the fourteen largest banks in India. Indira Gandhi Delhi Technical University for Women is a constituent college of GGSIP University established by the Government of Delhi in year 1998. The operation was carried out between June 1st and June 8th of 1984. She had a rocky start after agreeing to devalue the rupee which created hardship for Indian businesses and consumers. , Her first eleven years serving as Prime Minister saw Gandhi evolve from the perception of Congress party leaders as their puppet, to a strong leader with the iron resolve to split the party over her policy positions, or to go to war with Pakistan to liberate Bangladesh. Indira Gandhi was assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards on 31 October 1984. , The period of 1967–75 was characterised by socialist ascendency in India, which culminated in 1976 with the official declaration of state socialism. The main legacy of her rule was destroying internal party democracy in the Congress party. The bullets were matched with their respective weapons at the Central Forensic Science Laboratory (CFSL) Delhi. on, 7.  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