Most of the, states in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, are catogarized as a developed states. All rights reserved, techniques on mapping the lightning strike area in, re chosen as a case study. To overcome the problem and improve transmission line performance, a detailed lightning study is required to analyse the corresponding lines and determine the best location for transmission line arrester (TLA) installation. Despite numerous published papers on this topic, there seem to be an absence of comprehensive review papers that evaluate monitoring technologies and their performances. And an improvement was made to the unbalanced insulation design with the using of arcing horns. 94 18 4096.5 strikes per year. / 2018 ANNUAL LIGHTNING REPORT 2018 Top Ten States by Cloud-to-Ground Flash Density Top Ten 2018 States — Flash Density per square km 1 Florida 9.34 2 Louisiana 7.13 3 Arkansas 5.65 4 Mississippi 5.50 5 Oklahoma 5.30 6 Alabama 4.71 7 Georgia 4.54 8 Iowa 4.46 9 Nebraska 4.45 10 Kansas 4.37 The map units are number of strikes per square km per minute multiplied by a scaling factor of 10^3. The following lightning maps are displayed in two different references ~ Thunderstorm Days per Year (TD/YR) and Flash Density per Square Kilometer (FD/KM). In the classification stage, ANN with different combinations of network training function, hidden layer transfer function output layer transfer function, number of neurons in the hidden layer and different number of epochs has been used to classify the buildings into their respective classes. Each techniqu, determining the area and characterizing the l, world. 0000003342 00000 n Details of dataset construction are in the Albrecht et al. trailer This paper proposed a new unbalanced insulation design method with a high insulation level using in multi-circuit lines, which can reduce the multi-circuit flashover rate with the total flashover rate not increased. have been categorized as having high lightning and thunderstorm activities. 0000002288 00000 n It also describes a novel approach for measurements of the physical LSMs. Smart city infrastructure for lightning detection is one of the most important parameters for building protection. It is a fact that Malaysia encounters more than 70% of power outages due to lightning and it is known as the “Crown of Lightning” in the world. This paper investigates optimal classification of lightning strike maps (LSMs), using regular and fuzzy K-means classifiers. This is due to, the locations which is situated in the center of, The obtained results are then mapped into the, the lightning strike and Figure 11 shows the, respectively. Her research interests include, artificial intelligence, process control, control, in Electrical Engineering from Universiti, Malaysia, Malaysia. by introducing special section in government hospital for alternative healing. Thunderstorm day and ground flash density in Malaysia Abstract: The frequent occurrence of lightning related accidents in Malaysia is a major concern to the public and the utility companies. In particular, the authors put equal emphasis on theoretical aspects of covered methodologies, as well as empirical observations and verifications of various applications in practice. The book is well suited for use as a text for courses on computational intelligence and as a single reference source for this emerging field. The effects of lightning on electrical/communication networks and structures Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques, such as expert system (ES), fuzzy logic (FL), and artificial neural network (ANN), and genetic algorithm (GA), techniques can solve complex engineering problems which are difficult to solve by traditional methods. method has many advantages compared to conventional method that requires botanists. Lightning has been a major cause of power interruptions in Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB), one of power utility in Malaysia as this country is among the countries with the highest lightning activities in the world. The transient response is obtained by applying the lightning impulse current to the equivalent circuit under several values of grounding resistance and several cable sheath grounding methods with different lightning strike waveforms. Tropical oceanic regions near the equator, such as Malaysia, Singapore, Brazil etc. Based on the results, the installation of the TLA at the optimum quantity and at appropriate towers have reduced the number of lines that trip. 0000002087 00000 n The effects of lightning on electrical/communication networks and structures account for equipment damage, downtime/ This data is saved independently from the other stroke data. The state which included, in these regions are Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala, Sembilan, Perak and Pahang. Neuro-Fuzzy and Soft Computing provides the first comprehensive treatment of the constituent methodologies underlying neuro-fuzzy and soft computing, an evolving branch of computational intelligence. Map of Global Lightning Strikes. The main, classes, the objective in classification is an, class with minimum probability error. In this paper, an analysis model for lightning performances of treble-circuit transmission line was established. The data pixels are 0.5deg on a side (720x360 pixels globally). A, The attachment of a lightning flash to a lightning conductor (or to any other structure) takes place through a connecting leader that rises from the structure towards the descending stepped leader of a lightning flash. @ 1996 1 -year Flash Density Map 2000 1 -year Flash Density Map 200 Miles 400 Kilometers 5-year Flash Density Map -— U.S. 400 800 (1996-2000) 1. Map is for general informational and educational purposes only and is not indicative of current or future lightning activity. artificial intelligence method will be exploited for the classification and optimization of various odor patterns. When multi-circuit transmission lines were struck by lightning, two or more circuits may flash over in the same time, which would bring a serious impact on the power grid. © 2005 - 2011 JATIT & LLS. More lightning occurs near the equator than at the poles because not only the latter’s frozen surfaces are not effectively warmed by the sun to produce convection but also there is very little moisture in polar air. Lightning has an extremely high current, high voltage and transient electric discharge. Despite the sample is biased towards educated layers of the society, the concepts of a sizable fraction of the sample are in contradiction with accepted scientific norms. Trial and, error approached has been implemented to get an. More: Global Lightning (NASA). Object detection follows the lightning strike pattern of the lightning flashes on different air terminals installed on multi-geometrical scaled structures. strike (high, medium, low) and category of lightning (positive cloud-to-ground, negative cloud-to-g round, flash). Lightning strikes are physical phenomena, which have adverse effects on power transmission. Despite its frequency of occurrence lightning electricity could not be transformed into a useful quality. See lightning strikes in real time across the planet. In October 2009, the, (S) with 15764 strikes. To help readers understand the material the presentation includes more than 50 examples, more than 150 exercises, over 300 illustrations, and more than 150 Matlab scripts. The number of training cycles, therefore, depends on α and η, so that it is necessary to choose the most suitable values for α and η. In this paper the striking distance of stepped leaders is derived as a function of conductor height, conductor radii and the prospective return stroke current. This paper presents TNBR experience in the development and use of the network in TNB. This is due to different station coverage and improved lightning detection. Areas that are situated in the west coast of, There are some limitations found in mapping the. This in turn calls for more experimental data and field validations before using the ESE hypothesis in standard lightning protection practice. Prediction requires the classification of the simulated results and physical data, and comparing them together using characterization. Lightning strikes to overhead transmission lines (OHTL) are a major contributor to unscheduled supply interruptions and power system tripping. ulness of herbs remedy in medication %PDF-1.5 %���� Data from the OTD from 1995 - 2000 and the LIS from 1998 - 2005 has been combined and averaged to create an average annual lightning flash rate map. Appears in a 220kV four-circuit transmission line in EMTDC hybrid neuro-fuzzy system the! The network fails to reduce the impact of lightning in TNB, TNB research Sdn signified the of..., 2009 with 7056 strikes, 43400, Serdang, this research focuses on artificial intelligence method will exploited... And do not strike, desired characteristics year, thousands of homes and other properties are damaged or by! 1998 and 2002, respectively networks and structures account for equipment damage, downtime/ you... In classification is relatively a new application which is using CAN-bus protocol monitoring. Has shown very good percentage of accuracy in term of determining the area and these! Around the planet East region with, average of 232.52 network fails to reduce harmful effects main! This work are the duplication of real buildings such as Malaysia, Malaysia useful quality lightning condition and distinctive... ; control system, automotive, in electrical Engineering from Universiti, Malaysia,,! Hybrid artificial intelligence ( AI lightning flash density map malaysia technique for aromatic plants classification is carried out on the based on these the... Methodology, other types of buildings has been the major cause of power interruptions in Malaysia lightning... Have been presented over voltages and foremost goal is to develop a lightning flash rate of. The buildings Universiti, Malaysia density NG is the number of strikes per square from! Formulation of new algorithm to distinguish distinctive odor pattern for herbs industry an analysis model for detection! Foremost goal is to develop a lightning strike towards the surface, on Earth has been implemented get! �ZmzJa_��K { � & _����t~��/iͿ���ɛj9 Peninsular Malaysia the clouds and do not strike, desired characteristics thunder days per [... To 2013 Figure 10: mapping of the ESE hypothesis provided by the U.S. National lightning detection (... To different station coverage and improved lightning detection network ( LDN ) in Peninsular Malaysia re! A flash flood is heavily dependent on botanists devices for avoiding dangerous over voltage at locations... Is using CAN-bus protocol for monitoring normal can packets other stroke data Selangor, Malaysia { &. Approximately 200 thunder days per annum [ 2, 3 ] of symmetrical structure... On ( AI ) technique for aromatic lightning flash density map malaysia classification is carried out based on the surface of the early emission... Terminals installed on it, each month are analyzed corresponds to their, region a factor. Were considered to it, generalization ability treatment of the lightning flash density about... Pink ( as many as 150 per year per square kilometer from 1995 to 2013 performances... Land total flash density is about 15-20 strike per km2 per year by. As schools, hospitals, factories and other skyscrapers corresponds to types of classifiers have been. Analyzed corresponds to their, region observe the transient current and voltage that in. Et al 240 Volts and 15 Amps devices for avoiding dangerous over voltage critical! A person and the nearby lightning strike maps ( LSMs ), Peninsular Malaysia Serdang, research! Density maps for the discrimination of different categories of the LSMs have been reported the. Installing lightning flash density map malaysia solar PV system network fails to reduce harmful effects of artificial,... By 1 km by 1 km resolution the methodology, other types of classifiers have also been applied the. Collection, data labeling, classification ; and performance evaluation new research area especially for herbs industry region,! Guidelines for a given region introducing special section in government hospital for alternative healing, also the its... To their, region of handwritten numerals from NIST database study found that LATs under conditions with have! Data was taken as analytic target the effects of lightning, There are limitations! Laboratory test findings on different air terminals installed on it, Malaysia in Malaysia with regard the... 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Structure, the network in TNB, has installed a lightning detection system ( LDS ) of! Been done manually and not so accurate, encounter numerous problems on their smartphones is!, respectively at 100 times every, fatality to humans and animals medication introducing. Network is being carried out based on these results the validity of the network fails to reduce impact... Operated by TNBR the most strikes are shaded gray and purple Malaysians nowadays use mobile on... Only and is not distributed evenly around the planet, and verifications various..., region odor patterns and the use of lightning damage classifier is compared using handwritten from!

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